Rather than using words, people can communicate using nonverbal gestures, facial expressions and eye contact.
Generally ICTs are considered appropriate, even though there remain concerns over economic priorities, basic needs or computers. However, the implementation of ICTs is occurring in a context where the cultural and institutional barriers are not well addressed.
The assumption often made is that if one just purchases a few computers and modems, a post-industrial society can magically result. Africans and those in the Asia-Pacific are generally in the position of consumers and thus in a position where they cannot yet define the media in their terms.
At the same time, conservative attitudes entrenched in Asia-Pacific countries and concern over basic needs inhibit appreciation of the importance of new ICTs. For example, in Fiji and the Philippines, people believe ICTs are not the most important needs in their societies and that people can always find a way to get along if ICT use becomes a matter of "life and death".
Basic education, equipping schools with enough texts and reducing the teacher-student ratio, and seeing culturally relevant programs on television seem to be the major concerns of most of the respondents. There is also fear that the Internet could corrupt the morals of their society through easy access to pornography and other culturally "reprehensible" material.
The reasons were as follows: As one respondent commented: They help to do things better, they show a measure of development. And if we're going to be plugged into the world, particularly in the next century, on the continent of Africa and And information technology is an imperative that Africa would miss at its own risk.
Among the African respondents, a wide range of factors inhibit the widespread introduction and use of the new technologies. Thus in Africa, ignorance is far more major obstacle and those aware, mostly the educated and literate people in the private sector, say as much as they appreciate the need and importance of ICTs, the economic situation in their countries and general poverty make it difficult for people who need these ICTs to acquire them.
Compared to the Asia-Pacific countries studied, more people in Africa see the need for these ICTs inspite of traditional ways of doing things but are hampered by poverty. A range of factors were seen as inhibiting the use of new ICTs. Many saw the future of ICTs as positive and believed that their use in health and education could be quite dramatic.
Mind-boggling, with only our imagination as limits was the type of language used by participants. Developing African and Asia-Pacific countries are caught in a Catch situation: If they use these technologies without addressing some of the concerns and needs of their societies, they could be placing their carts before their horses.
What is needed most is effective and efficient, not to mention wise, telecommunications and culture policy, as well as research that informs such policy. The new communication technologies have their strengths and drawbacks, they should not merely be seen as apolitical tools but as embedded in culture, politics and our mutual futures.
Moving this research to the implementation phase, we recommend the following: This linkage must be direct, showing stakeholders the benefits of using ICTs for economic growth. CD-ROMS and access to the web must not only be inexpensive, but as much as possible be locally driven, based on local content.
Dissemination of hardware must include software support, institutional linkages, and servicing. The study was conducted over the period January and April Aims The study aimed to determine the: Patton vividly describes the situation thus: Rather, the investigator's commitment is to understand the world as it is, to be true to complexities and multiple perspectives as they emerge, and to be balanced in reporting both confirming and disconfirming evidence" p.
The four African and two Asia-Pacific countries selected for the study were chosen purposively. Owing to funding problems, we could not conduct the study in as many Asia-Pacific countries as we did in Africa. Despite its political problems, Nigeria is regarded as a major economic and military power not only in the West African sub-region but also in the whole of Africa.
It is also regarded as the most populous country in Africa.
It was thus chosen for inclusion in this study. To what extent have the ICTs impacted on the country's sociopolitical and economic development? Ghana is one of the emerging economic success stories in Africa and it was thus considered appropriate to investigate the status and impact of the new ICTs in such a country.
Cote d'Ivoire -- formerly known as Ivory Coast -- is a major French-speaking country in the West African sub-region and was included as well. The Philippines was included because of its strong non-governmental organization culture, in the hope of better understanding of how ngos view ICT use and diffusion.
Fiji was chosen, both for its multicultural mix, as well as for its housing of the University of South Pacific, the premiere university in the Pacific. People interviewed in the African countries included Internet Service Providers ISPscommunication and computer science academics in leading universities, computer and telecommunications equipment retailers, government policy makers in ministries and agencies, and editors of major newspapers.
In Fiji, we also interviewed an official of Telecom Fiji Ltd. In the Philippines, we interviewed a former secretary of science and technology in the previous Philippines government, an official of the Philippine Greens, a program manager in a United Nations agency in Manila, president of one of the local universities, and an official of the national computer centre.
As a condition for agreeing to be interviewed, some of the respondents in all the countries requested anonymity either due to the sensitive positions they occupied in government offices or because they did not want to be identified.school counselor’s testimony or case notes are subpoenaed if the release of confidential information may potentially harm a student or the counseling relationship.
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