Impact of ethnicity on politics

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Impact of ethnicity on politics

Slavery in Brazil There seems to be no easy explanation of why slaves were not employed as wage workers at the abolition of slavery.

One possibility is the influence of race-based ideas from the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries, which were based on theories of White superiority.

On the other hand, Brazilian latifundiaries had been using slave manpower for centuries, with no complaints about the quality of this workforce, and there were not important changes in Brazilian economy or work processes that could justify such sudden preoccupation with the "race" of the labourers.

Their embracing of those new identitarian ideas, moreover, proved quite flexible, even opportunist: An important, and usually ignored, part of this equation was the political situation in Brazil, during the final crisis of slavery. The massive flight of slaves from several fazendas threatens, in some places in the province, public order, alarming the proprietaries and the productive classes.

Fights were happening in daylight, guns were spotted among the fugitives, who, instead of hiding from police, seemed ready to engage in confrontation. As an abolitionist newspaper, O Rebate, put it, ten years later, Hadn't the slaves fled massively from the plantations, rebelling against the masters Hadn't them, in more than 20, gone to the famous quilombo of Jabaquara out of Santos, itself a center of abolitionist agitationand maybe they would today be still slaves Slavery ended because slaves no longer wanted to be slaves, because slaves rebelled against their masters and against Impact of ethnicity on politics law that enslaved them The law of 13 May was nothing more than the legal recognition — so that public Impact of ethnicity on politics wasn't discredited — of an act that had already been accomplished by the mass revolt of slaves.

In this respect, what was new in "immigration to Brazil" was not the "immigration", but the "to Brazil" part. As Wilson do Nascimento Barbosa puts it, The collapse of slavery was the economic result of three conjugated movements: Immigration to Brazil As the Brazilian elites perceived the oncoming abolition of slavery as a problem, various alternatives were discussed.

While very few remained stuck with the idea of preserving slavery, some[ who?

Impact of ethnicity on politics

It was against these positions, not against any imaginary African immigration, that racial arguments were made.

So, besides a dispute "immigrantists" and "anti-immigrantists", there was also a debate between pro-Chinese and pro-European immigrantists; the latter also were divided between those, like Nicolau Moreira, who defended not only European immigration, but also a land reform, so to attract immigrants as small farmers, and those[ who?

The goal was to "whiten" Brazil through new immigrants and through future miscegenation in which former slaves would disappear by becoming "whiter".

Although discussions were situated in a theoretical field, immigrants arrived and colonies were founded through all this period the rule of Pedro IIespecially from on, particularly in the Southeast and Southern Brazil.

These discussions culminated in the Decree insigned by Brazil's first President Deodoro da Fonsecawhich opened the national harbors[ citation needed ] to immigration except for Africans and Asians.

This decree remained valid until October 5, when, due to pressures of coffee planters interested in cheap manpower, it was overturned by Law Later immigration, from on, was not so much influenced by that race discussions and Brazil attracted, besides Europeans, more immigrants from LebanonSyria and Japan, for example[ citation needed ].

Oliveira Vianna and the ideology of "Whitening"[ edit ] See also: Racial whitening and Mongrel complex The Brazilian government, as was commonplace at that time, endorsed positions expressed by Brazilian intellectuals.

An example is a text, written by Oliveira Viannathat was issued as introductory material to Census results. Many pages of Vianna's work were dedicated to the discussion of a "pure race" of white Brazilians. According to the text, written by Oliveira Vianna, the first Portuguese colonists who came to Brazil were part of the blond Germanic nobility that ruled Portugal, while the dark-haired "poor" Portuguese only came to Brazil later, in the 17th and especially the 18th century.

The painting depicts a black grandmother, mulatta mother, white father and their quadroon child, hence three generations of hypergamy through racial whitening.

According to Oliveira Vianna, the blond Portuguese of Germanic origin were "restless and migratory", and that's why they emigrated to Brazil. On the other hand, the Portuguese of darker complexions were of Celtic or Iberian origin and came when the Portuguese settlement in Brazil was already well established, because, according to him, "The peninsular brachyoids, of Celtic race, or the dolicoides, of Iberian race, of sedentary habits and peaceful nature, did not have, of course, that mobility nor that bellicosity nor that spirit of adventure and conquest".

The book appeared at a moment when there was a widespread belief among social scientists that some races were superior to other ones, and in the same period when the Nazi Party in Germany was on the rise.

Freyre's work was very important to change the mentality, especially of the white Brazilian elite, who considered the Brazilian people as "inferior" because of their African and Amerindian ancestry.

In this book, Freyre argued against the idea that Brazil would have an "inferior race" because of the race-mixing. Then, he pointed the positive elements that permeate the Brazilian cultural formation because of miscegenation especially between Portuguese, Indians and blacks.

Freyre's book has changed the mentality in Brazil, and the mixing of races, then, became a reason to be a national pride.

Newsroom employees are less diverse than U.S. workers overall

However, Freyre's book created the Brazilian myth of the Racial democracyso that Brazil was a "post-racial" country without identitarianism or desire to preserve one's European ancestry.

This theory was later challenged by several anthropologists who claim that, despite the race-mixing, the white Brazilian population still occupies the top of the Brazilian society, while Blacks, Indians and mixed-race people are largely found in the poor population.No other book on the market maps U.S.

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Impact of ethnicity on politics

British Journal of Political Science. ; – Public engagement and impact. Our research is theoretically informed, empirically grounded and politically and socially relevant. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics.

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