To view this licence, visit nationalarchives. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https: Through building up a body of key foundational knowledge and concepts, pupils should be encouraged to recognise the power of rational explanation and develop a sense of excitement and curiosity about natural phenomena.
Deeside Industrial Park Summary The production of wound odour can represent a major problem for patients and their carers. If the formation of the odour cannot be prevented, it may be necessary to use a dressing that adsorbs the volatile molecules released from the wound which are responsible for the smell.
The performance of four dressings each containing activated charcoal designed to be used in the treatment of malodorous wounds have been assessed in a laboratory-based study. The results of this investigation suggest that differences exist in the performance of these products that may have potentially important clinical implications.
Introduction It is well recognised that certain types of wounds produce noxious odours which, even in moderate cases, can cause significant distress or embarrassment to a patient and their relatives.
In extreme cases this odour can become so overpowering that it may cause an individual to withdraw from social contacts, even with family and close friends. Wounds most commonly associated with odour production include leg ulcers and fungating cancerous lesions of all types.
The smell from these wounds is caused by a cocktail of volatile agents that includes short chain organic acids, n-butyric, n-valeric, n-caproic, n-haptanoic and n-caprylic produced by anaerobic bacteria,  together with a mixture of amines and diamines such as cadaverine and putrescine that are produced by the metabolic processes of other proteolytic bacteria.
Organisms frequently isolated from malodorous wounds include anaerobes such as Bacteroides and Clostridium species, and numerous aerobic bacteria including Proteus, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas spp.
Recent research has shown that the wound odour produced by some bacteria is specific to that species and that this may be analysed electrochemically to identify the presence of organisms such as beta-haemolytic streptococci.
This may be achieved in a number of ways. The administration of systemic antibiotics or antimicrobial agents may be effective in some cases, but often the nature of the wound is such that it is not possible to achieve an effective concentration of the antibiotic at the site of infection by this method, particularly in the presence of slough or necrotic tissue.
Most topical antiseptics are also likely to be of limited value and many of these have been shown to have adverse effects on wound healing.
Research has shown despite the fact that metronidazole is traditionally associated with the treatment of anaerobic infections, in the concentrations used topically it may also have an effect upon a range of aerobic organisms,  although the clinical evidence for the widespread use of this material has been questioned in the past.
The hyperosmotic environment produced by high concentrations of sugar is believed to inhibit bacterial growth,  and thus prevent odour formation. Live yoghurt is also sometimes applied in an attempt to encourage overgrowth of pathogenic organisms by lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
More recently, larval therapy has been shown to be an extremely effective way of eliminating wound infection and odour from extensive necrotic wounds. Historically wound odours were masked by burning incense and in more recent times, by the use of aerosols or air fresheners.
Obviously although these do not resolve the underlying problem, they may make life a little more bearable for the patient and their family! Ina more scientific approach to the control of odour was reported by Butcher et al. This material was incorporated into pads containing surgical gauze and a layer of a water repellent fabric.
When these pads were used in the treatment of fungating breast cancer, gangrene and immediate post operative colostomies, the associated odours were said to be totally suppressed.
Activated charcoal cloth is produced by carbonising a suitable cellulose fabric by heating it under carefully controlled conditions. During this process, the surface of the carbon breaks down to form small pores.JNN is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal covering fundamental and applied research in all disciplines of science, engineering and medicine.
This study was carried out to compare the key properties of a number of dressings of European origin, using a series of different laboratory tests in order to test the validity .
Comparative study of microstructures and mechanical properties of in situ Ti–TiB composites produced by selective laser melting, powder metallurgy, and casting. The scientific exploration related to comparative study of different properties of taro flour as compared to rice and pigeonpea flour is scarce.
Therefore the present work was undertaken to study the physiochemical, functional, antinutritional and pasting properties of taro, rice and pigeonpea flour and to establish possible correlations.
Grade 7» Introduction Print this page. In Grade 7, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of and applying proportional relationships; (2) developing understanding of operations with rational numbers and working with expressions and linear equations; (3) solving problems involving scale drawings and informal geometric constructions, and working.
This reference list was compiled by Robert Hare for personal use. Most, but not all, of the articles listed on these pages discuss or evaluate the PCL-R, the PCL:SV, the PCL:YV, and other Hare initiativeblog.com to available abstracts, and when available, links to the full text on the Journal web sites are provided (search for [full text] on the page below).